Evading the Embargo: How the United States Arms South Africa and Rhodesia

by Michael Klare, Eric Prokosch, American Friends Service Committee, Institute for Policy Studies, United Nations Centre Against Apartheid
New York, New York, United States
October 1978
Publisher: United Nations Centre Against Apartheid
13 pages
Paper was submitted on May 30, 1978 by Michael T. Klare, Director of the Militarism and Disarmament Project of the Institute for Policy Studies, and Eric Prokosch of National Action/Research on the Military Industrial Complex (NARMIC), a project of the American Friends Service Committee, to the Seminar on South Africa's Military Build-up and Nuclear Plans held by the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid. The report says that, although the United States agreed to honor the U.N. arms embargoes on South Africa and Rhodesia (adopted in 1963 and 1966 respectively), vast quantities of U.S. arms have been supplied to the two countries. These deliveries have enabled the minority governments of Pretoria and Salisbury to intensify their control over the Black majority and to resist what they perceive as half-hearted calls for change on the part of U.S. officials. Klare’s and Prokosch’s research indicates that a variety of channels - legal and illegal, direct and indirect, overt and covert - are used by U.S. and foreign corporations to evade the 1963 and 1966 sanctions. The report discusses the Carter Administration, South African Air Force (SAAF), United Nations Security Council resolution 418 (1977), South African army and navy, International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), combat aircraft, C-130 Hercules, Lockheed L-100 transports, Swearingen Merlin-IV medium transports, Cessna Model-185 Skywagon, Piaggio P-166s patrol planes, AM-3C Bosbok utility craft, C-4M Kudu liaison planes, air commandos, Nixon Administration, U.S. State Department, National Security Study Memorandum No. 39, United States Air Force, Paratus magazine, Piaggio of Italy, Avco-Lycoming IGSO-540-AIC, Lycoming engines, AM-3C, C-4M, Aeronautica Macchi SpA (AerMacchi), C-4M Kudu, Atlas Aircraft, Prime Minister John Vorster, the AerMacchi-Lockheed AL-60 Conestoga transport, Jennifer Davis, The Africa Fund, United States Export-Import Bank (Eximbank), Helio Aircraft Model-295 Super Couriers, Beechcraft A36 Bonanza, the Rockwell Turbo-Commando, Cessna Executives, Golden Eagles, Conquests, Citations; Piper Super-Cubs; Mitsubishi MU-2 twin-turboprop, Mitsubishi Aircraft International, Olin Corporation, firearms, Winchester, Colt Industries, Walter S. Plowman, M113 armored personnel carriers, Oto Melara, Bell Model 205A troop-carrying helicopters, Agusta of Italy, FMC Corp., Tony Avirgan, Milavnews, Reims 337, General Aircraft Manufacturer's Association, Cardiss Collins, Jane's All the World's Aircraft, and apartheid. • United States arms in South Africa • Loophole No.1: civilian aircraft sales to the South African Air Force • Loophole No.2: United States-powered aircraft • Loophole No.3: overseas production of United States-designed aircraft • Loophole No.4: aircraft sales to civilians • Illegal/clandestine arms deliveries • Plugging the loopholes
Used by permission of American Friends Service Committee.