by Washington Office on Africa Educational Fund
Washington, DC, United States
December 2, 1985
The fact sheet says Angola was under Portuguese control from the 15th century until it achieved independence on November 11, 1975. Armed struggle for liberation began in earnest in March 1961. Nationalist movements emerged within Angola's three major ethnolinguistic groups: the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) under the leadership of Holden Roberto (Bakongo); the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) led by Dr. Agostinho Neto (Mbundu); and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) headed by Jonas Savimbi. The report says on January 26, 1975, in an attempt to strengthen the FLNA's position, the CIA sent $300,000 to Roberto and encouraged the FNLA to attack the MPLA, and Soviet Union and Cuba sent advisors to Angola. The report discusses South African raids into Angola. The report says the war ensures Pretoria's continued control over Namibia and delays economic reconstruction in Angola. The report discusses the Alvor Accord, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), Zaire, the Clark Amendment, David Rockefeller, House Subcommittee Chair Howard Wolpe, the Reagan Administration, the Export-Import Bank, Angola’s oil fields, SWAPO, Jose Belmundo, ivory, diamonds, weapons, ammunition, the frontline states, 32 Battalion, U.N. Resolution 435, Cuban troops, the Lusaka Accord, and the Western Contact Group. • A War-Torn Economy • UNITA: The Politics of Opportunism • The South Africa-UNITA Connection • Regional Peace Initiatives
Used by permission of Africa Action (successor to the Africa Policy Information Center).
Collection: Private collection of David Wiley and Christine Root