IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE ANTI-APARTHEID ACT OF 1986

by Southern Africa Project of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law
Washington, DC, United States
June 1988
Publisher: Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law
152 pages
Type: Report
Coverage in Africa: Namibia, South Africa
Coverage outside Africa: United States, Canada, Europe, United Nations
Language: English
Contents:  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY • I. INTRODUCTION • A. Background • B. Prior U.S. Sanctions Against South Africa • C. The Limited Nature and Impact of the Sanctions • D. Scope of The Report • II. IMPORT RESTRICTIONS • A. Imports from Parastatal Organizations • 1. The Definition of Parastatal Organization • a. Owned and Controlled • b. Subsidized • 2. The Parastatal/Non-Parastatal Distinction • a. The Distinction is Fallacious • b. The Distinction is Administratively Unworkable • B. Imports of Strategic Minerals • 1. Introduction • 2. Definition of Strategic Minerals • 3. Evaluation of Minerals Certified ad Strategic • a. Chromium • b. Cobalt • c. Manganese • d. Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) • e. Vanadium • f. Evaluation • C. Ban on Uranium Imports • 1. Treasury Rules Affecting Uranium Imported for Shipment to a Third Country • 2. The Treasury Department's Exception for Uranium Hexafluoride • D. Import Restrictions on Other Products • 1. Import Restrictions on Iron and Steel • 2. Agricultural Commodities • 3. Sugar Imports • 4. Coal and Textiles • 5. Enforcement Problems • E. Comparison of U.S. Ban on Imports from South Africa with U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Other Countries • III. EXPORT RESTRICTIONS • A. Introduction • B. Ban on Computer Exports • C. Prohibition on Nuclear Trade • D. Ban on Military Exports • E. Prohibition on Crude Oil and Petroleum Exports • F. Analysis and Recommendations • IV. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS PROVISIONS • A. Introduction • B. Prohibition on Extension of Loans and Credits to the South African Government • 1. Limitations on Persons Covered • 2. Coverage of Secondary Market Activities • 3. Humanitarian Purposes • 4. Third Country Borrowings • C. Prohibition on Acceptance and Holding of South African Government Deposits • D. Prohibition on New Investments by U.S. Entities in South Africa • 1. Regulatory Definition of New Investments • 2. Seller Financed Withdrawals of Corporations From South Africa • 3. The Reinvestment of Profits • 4. Investments to Continue Operations In a Sound Economic Manner • 5. Secondary Market Transactions in South African Securities • 6. Investments in Firms Owned by Black South Africans • E. Private Licenses • V. CHANGES IN UNITED STATES TAX LAWS RELEVANT TO SOUTH AFRICA • A. Introduction • B. Termination of the Treaty • C. Denial of United States Tax Benefits in OBRA • 1. Denial of FTCs • 2. Prevention of "Soak Up" of Other Excess FTCs • 3. Current United States Taxation of South African Income • 4. Impact of OBRA Provisions • 5. Revenue Effect of OBRA Provisions • VI. THE CONTINUING VALIDITY OF STATE AND MUNICIPAL LAWS • VII. TERMINATION OF AIR LINKS • VIII. ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS • A. Civil and Criminal Penalties • B. Enforcement Actions • C. Limitation on Imports From Third Countries • D. Private Right of Action • E. Multilateral Measures • The report discusses the Ford Motor Company, Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Venda, Bantustans, Rev. Leon Sullivan, the Sullivan Principles, President Reagan, the Krugerrand, the Office of Munitions Control, the Arms Export Control Act, the arms embargo, the Export Administration Act, gold, coins, foreign  investment, Congressional intent, the Executive Branch, the Department of State, SASOL (South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corporation), ESCOM (Electricity Supply Commission), P.W. Botha, the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), uranium oxide, Kerr-McGhee, ARMSCOR, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR),the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, International Business Machines (IBM), OECD, the Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC), Ford Motor Company of Canada Limited, Anglo American Corporation, the South African Motor Corporation (Samcor), the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA), foreign tax credits (FTCs), public investment portfolios, pension funds, preemption, South African Airways (SAA), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Used by permission of Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law.
Collection: Elizabeth S. Landis collection, National Archives of Namibia