Embargo: Apartheid's Oil Secrets Revealed

by Richard Hengeveld (editor), Jaap Rodenburg (editor), Shipping Research Bureau
with Nelson R. Mandela, Martin Bailey, Amer Araim, Kevin Davie, Clive Scholtz, Tom de Quaasteniet, Paul Aarts, Øystein Gudim, Henrik Berlau, Erik van den Berg, Donna Katzin, Peter van Bergeijk
Amsterdam, Netherlands
1995
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
414 pages
Contents: Preface by President Nelson R. Mandela • Glossary and Abbreviations • South African Oil/Fuel Infrastructure • Introduction • PART A • Embargo: Apartheid’s Oil Secrets Revealed • ‘The Last Peaceful Weapon’ • The Spear of the Nation • First Steps of the Shipping Research Bureau • Secrecy Is Essential • South Africa's Lifeline • The ANC, the Oil Embargo and the SRB • Monitoring Invisible Trade • Marc Rich: Fuel for Apartheid • Shipping Companies • Embargo Politics • The Impact of the Oil Embargo • Annex: Fifteen Years of Embargo Violations • PART B • Enforcing Oil Sanctions: A Comparison of the Rhodesian and South African Embargos • The United Nations and the Oil Embargo against South Africa • Apartheid and the Cost of Energy Self-Sufficiency • Drive Now And Pay Forever - The Apartheid Way • Putting Money over Mouth, Profit over Principle: Arab and Iranian Oil Sales to South Africa • A Defeat for the Shipping Lobby? The Norwegian Experience • Maritime Unions Against Apartheid • The Dutch Campaign Against Shell • Stop Press! • Anatomy of a Boycott: The Royal Dutch/Shell Campaign in the US • The Oil Embargo and the Intellectual: The Academic Debate on Economic Sanctions against South Africa • Notes • Annex: Shipping Research Bureau 1980-1995 • Selected Bibliography on the Oil Embargo against South Africa • Index • The book discusses the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid, the African National Congress (ANC), Oliver Tambo, Ronald Segal, sanctions, the International Defence and Aid Fund, the Anti-Apartheid Movement, Brian Lapping, BP (British Petroleum), Mobil Oil, SASOL, Caltex, Anglo American Corp., OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), Harold Wilson, the Security Council, UDI (Unilateral Declaration of Independence), Bernard Rivers, Soekor, Swakor, the National Supplies Procurement Act, the Petroleum Products Act, the General Assembly, the Non-Aligned Movement, Fluor Corporation, Texaco, Okhela, Soweto, the Haslemere Group, Total, the Danish Seamen's Union, the International University Exchange Fund, Craig Williamson, the Bingham Inquiry, Roelof "Pik" Botha, Ayatollah Khomeini, Chris Heunis, the Strategic Fuel Association, George Bartlett, John Malcomess, coal, the Holland Committee on Southern Africa (Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika), B. Akporode Clark, Frederick Soudan, Barbara Conway, Eric Ellen, the International Chamber of Commerce, E.S. Reddy, David Moisi, Steve Biko, Lindiwe Sisulu, Rashid Patel, Aboobaker Ismail, the South African Defence Force (SADF), MK (Umkhonto weSizwe ), Joe Slovo, Jacob Zuma, the Freedom Charter, Louis le Grange, Ronnie Kasrils, the Solomon Mahlangu Squad, Sharpeville Day, the Natref refinery, F.W. de Klerk, Sasolburg, Secunda, Frene Ginwala, Mike Louw, Gatsha Buthelezi, Alfred Nzo, the South African Police (SAP), the Second Police Amendment Bill, the Progressive Federal Party (PFP), the New Republic Party (NRP), Niël Barnard, Vause Raw, P.W. Botha, the National Key Points Act, PAC (Pan-Africanist Congress), Nyathi Pokela, Captain Dirk Coetzee, Robben Island, Ronald Reagan, Constand Viljoen, Matola, FRELIMO, SWAPO, the International Oil Working Group, Teresa Turner, the Organization of African Trade Union Unity, Maritime Unions Against Apartheid, Frank Janzen, Curacao Oil Terminal, Transworld Oil, Norske Fina, Petrofina, Cor Groenendijk, Solomon Gomez, Jan Nico Scholten, the Association of European Parliamentarians for Action against Apartheid (AWEPAA), Gwen Lister, the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986, Thabo Mbeki, the Dutch Seamen's Union, Henrik Berlau, the International Transport Workers' Federation, the Merchant Navy and Airline Officers' Association, Mossel Bay, UNCTAD, John Deuss, Per Anders Nordengen, the Church of Norway, David Hitchman, World Wide Maritime, President Carter, the Norwegian Council for Southern Africa, Hong Kong, the South African Council of Churches, Conoco, Paul Conlon, James Callaghan, Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), Zimbabwe Africa People’s Union (ZAPU), Robert Mugabe, the Patriotic Front, Lonrho, Marino Chiavelli, uranium, the Armaments Corporation of South Africa (Armscor), the G-5 supergun, the National Union of Seamen, the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU), the Seamen's Union of Australia, the National Union of Mineworkers of South Africa, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA), the Free South Africa Movement, the United Auto Workers, Pagan International, the National Party, the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), UDF (United Democratic Front), GATT, ICFTU (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions), the World Council of Churches (WCC), COSATU (Congress of South African Trade Unions), and WFTU (World Federation of Trade Unions).
Used by permission of Richard Hengeveld, a former director and reseacher of the Shipping Research Bureau, who provided this PDF.
Collection: Private collection of Richard Hengeveld