SOUTHERN AFRICA MUST BE FREE

by American Friends Service Committee
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
May 1977
16 pages
Contents: THREE WHITE CONTROLLED NATIONS • WHAT IS SOUTHERN AFRICA? • WHAT IS U.S. FOREIGN POLICY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA? • South African Views • Other Views • THE CASE AGAINST INVESTMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA • A LOOK AT THE THREE COUNTRIES • SOUTH AFRICA-AZANIA • U.S. Support for Apartheid • Opposition to Apartheid • NAMIBIA • SWAPO • RHODESIA-ZIMBABWE • The Geneva Conference • ACTION • Self-Determination - The Primary Issue • Organizations at Work in the U.S • Address • Recommended Reading • Slide Show • The pamphlet opens with quotations from Kenneth Kaunda, President of Zambia, about his hope in 1960 that power could shift from a white minority to the majority in a nonviolent struggle and his conclusion in 1977 that Blacks have no option but to respond to fire with fire. The pamphlet explores these questions: “Is there any chance left for a peaceful resolution of the vexing problems of Southern Africa? How, if at all, can self-determination and freedom for the masses of the people now be achieved without resort to violence? What must we in America be doing? What must we stop doing?” The pamphlet introduces the interconnected countries in the Southern Africa region, including those still controlled by white minority regimes and the “frontline” states bordering them. The pamphlet says Congress passed the Byrd amendment, directly flouting United Nations sanctions by permitting the importation of Rhodesian chrome and repealed it in March 1977. In 1974, U.S. policy makers were jolted by the coup in Portugal and the announcement of plans for independence in Mozambique and Angola in 1975. In Angola, a civil war ensued between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), and National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). The Ford administration decided to step up CIA aid to FNLA and UNITA. Among organizations advocating withdrawal of foreign economic investment from South Africa was the International Labor Organization (ILO) at a 1973 conference in Geneva. The Soweto uprising in 1976 and continuing nonviolent direct action, strikes, and boycotts led by black students and workers in major South African cities have brought renewed international attention to black resistance to apartheid. The pamphlet discusses the Christian Institute of South Africa, homelands or Bantustans, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Lusaka Manifesto of 1969, National Security Study Memorandum 39 (NSSM 39), Henry Kissinger, the Nixon administration, an arms embargo of South Africa, an increase in corporate investment and bank loans, equipment that can serve both military and civilian purpose, airstrips for refueling U.S. military planes, cooperation on military-scientific projects such as space tracking stations, assistance by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) on South African nuclear projects, U.S. tourism, Portuguese colonialism, the Soviet Union, Zaire, Russian armaments, Cuban troops, Prime Minister John Vorster, the Carter administration, Leon Sullivan and the Sullivan Principles, the Opportunities Industrialization Center, American Committee on Africa (ACOA), Washington Office on Africa (WOA), Coalition for a New Foreign and Military Policy, the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL), Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility (ICCR), National Council of Churches, Episcopal Church, United States Catholic Conference, United Church of Christ, United Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., United Methodist Church, Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, South African Ambassador Roelof Botha, Chief Gatsha Buthelezi, Byers Naude, the African National Congress (ANC), Pan African Congress (PAC), Indian Congress, Coloured Labour Party, black South African Students Organization (SASO), National Union of South African Students (NUSAS), Black People's Convention (BPC), Black Renaissance Convention (BRC), Bill Sutherland, the National Party, U.S. companies (Chrysler, Ford , GM, Texaco, Mobil, Standard Oil of California, IBM, ITT, and General Electric), U.S. banks (Citibank, Chase, Morgan, Manufacturers Hanover, and Bank of America), the Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im), Investor Responsibility Research Center (IRRC), Ford of Canada, Chief Albert Luthuli, Defiance Campaigns, the Sharpeville massacre, South African Council of Churches, South Africa Student Movement (SASM), Progressive Party, Alan Paton, Roman Catholic Church of South Africa, the League of Nations, the mandate, the World Court, SWAPO (South West Africa People's Organization), Ian Smith, a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI), liberation movements, the Patriotic Front, Joshua Nkomo, Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), and the Zimbabwe United People's Organization.
Used by permission of American Friends Service Committee.
Collection: Private collection of David Wiley and Christine Root